The Kardia Virtual Machine (KVM) is a powerful, sandbox virtual stack embedded with each full node, responsible for executing smart contract bytecode. Smart contracts refer to immutable computer programs and run deterministic in the context of KVM. Contracts are written in a higher-level programming language like solidity, then compiled to bytecode. The machine code is completely isolated from the network, file system, and any processes of the host computer. Every node in the network runs a KVM instance which allows them to agree on executing a contract. The KVM is essential because it executes smart contracts, allowing anyone to execute code in a trustless ecosystem. The outcome of these smart contract code executions is guaranteed and fully determined. For every instruction implemented on the KVM, the system keeps track of execution cost, assigns to each instruction an associated cost in the gas unit. When users initiate an execution, they will reserve some KAI to pay for this gas cost.